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ROS Visual odometry

raspberrypi

#1

ROS Visual Odometry

Contents

  • Introduction
  • System architecture
  • Preparing the environment
  • Calibrating the camera
  • Rectifying image
  • Getting odometry
  • Visualizing pose

Introduction

After this tutorial you will be able to create the system that determines position and orientation of a robot by analyzing the associated camera images. This information can be used in Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping (SLAM) problem that has been at the center of decades
of robotics research.

What do we need to build this?

  • Raspberry PI running Emlid Linux distro with pre-installed ROS
  • Raspberry PI Camera
  • Server running Linux

If you have everything, grab a cup of coffee, sit down, and read this tutorial.


System architecture

If you absolutely have no idea what is ROS, nodes and how they communicate with each other, I strongly recommend you to learn it by reading official documentation and completing tutorials for beginners. Alternatively, you can read our guides. explaining its basic architecture and teaching how to write simple publisher and subscriber either on Python or C++.
So, the graph of our system looks like this:

As you can see in this picture, we have Raspberry Camera connected and raspicam creating multimedia pipeline and sending video from camera to gst-launch. The latter then transmit the image to our server over UDP. gscam will broadcast the video to /raspicam/image_raw topic. This image should be rectified with image_proc node. And finally, rectified image is taken by mono_odometer, which handles it and computes position and orientation of the robot publishing this data straight to the /vision/pose topic.


Preparing the environment

Connecting the camera

Firstly, connect your camera to Raspberry. To determine whether it’s working or not, just type:

$ sudo vcgencmd get_camera

If you got supported=1 detected=1, ****then it’s ok and you can follow the next step. Otherwise, you should enable your camera with raspi-config. Furthermore, you can test video streaming with this tutorial.

Installing ROS on your server

I used ROS kinetic, but you may use anything you want. Check out the official guide to get it working. Installation of ROS is quite straightforward and usually doesn’t produce errors. If you stumbled and got any, you can always ask for help on the forum.

Installing all packages and libraries

In this section we are going to build our environment with every library we need. Here are the list of what we should install:

  • OpenCV
  • libviso2
  • gscam
  • image_common
  • image_pipeline
  • vision_opencv

OpenCV

The needed packages should be installed using a terminal and the following commands:

$ sudo apt-get install build-essential
$ sudo apt-get install cmake git libgtk2.0-dev pkg-config libavcodec-dev libavformat-dev libswscale-dev
$ sudo apt-get install python-dev python-numpy libtbb2 libtbb-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev libtiff-dev libjasper-dev libdc1394-22-dev

Get the latest stable OpenCV version:

$ git clone https://github.com/Itseez/opencv.git

Build:

$ cd /opencv
$ mkdir build
$ cd build
$ cmake -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release -D CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local ..
$ make -j5 # runs 5 jobs in parallel

All the following packages should be cloned into ~/odometry/src, so

$ cd ~/odometry/src

viso2

$ git clone https://github.com/srv/viso2

gscam

$ git clone https://github.com/ros-drivers/gscam

image_common

$ git clone https://github.com/ros-perception/image_common.git

image_pipeline

$ git clone https://github.com/ros-perception/image_pipeline.git

vision_opencv

$ git clone https://github.com/ros-perception/vision_opencv.git

Building everything:

$ cd ~/odometry
$ catkin_make

After successful building all packages let’s get our system up and working. Firstly, ssh into Raspberry and start broadcasting video to our server:

$ raspivid -n -w 640 -h 480 -b 1000000 -fps 40 -t 0 -o - | gst-launch-1.0 -v fdsrc ! h264parse ! rtph264pay config-interval=10 pt=96 ! udpsink host=<IP> port=9000

Where is IP address of your server. If you don’t know it, type:

 $ ifconfig

and find your network and your IP.

After that change directory to ~/odometry/gscam/examples and create a new launch file called ‘raspicam.launch’:

$ cd /odometry/gscam/examples
$ vi raspicam.launch

Paste the following and save it:

<launch>
   <arg name="cam_name" value="raspicam"/>
   <env name="GSCAM_CONFIG" value="udpsrc port=9000 ! application/x-rtp, payload=96 ! rtpjitterbuffer ! rtph264depay ! avdec_h264 ! videoconvert" />
   <node pkg="gscam" type="gscam" name="$(arg cam_name)">
     <param name="camera_name" value="$(arg cam_name)" />
     <remap from="camera/image_raw" to="$(arg cam_name)/image_raw" />
   </node>
 </launch>

Then launch gscam and see if you can get an image:

$ roslaunch gscam raspicam.launch
$ rosrun image_view image_view image:=/raspicam/image_raw 

Calibrating the camera

Before Starting Make sure that you have a large checkerboard with known dimensions.
To calibrate camera we will use cameracalibrator.py node from package image_calibration which is already installed. To run it for a monocular camera using an 8x6 chessboard with 24mm squares just type:

rosrun camera_calibration cameracalibrator.py --size 8x6 --square 0.024 image:=/raspicam/image_raw

You will see a new window opened which will highlight the checkerboard:. This will open up the calibration window:

text

In order to get a good calibration you will need to move the checkerboard around in the camera frame such that:

  • checkerboard on the camera’s left, right, top and bottom of field of view
    • X bar - left/right in field of view
    • Y bar - top/bottom in field of view
    • Size bar - toward/away and tilt from the camera
  • checkerboard filling the whole field of view
  • checkerboard tilted to the left, right, top and bottom

As you move the checkerboard around you will see three bars on the calibration sidebar increase in length. When the CALIBRATE button lights, you have enough data for calibration and can click CALIBRATE to see the results.

text

Calibration can take about a minute. The windows might be greyed out but just wait, it is working.
After calibration is done, you can save the archive and then extract it. You will need the *.yaml file. Rename it to ‘raspicam.yaml’ and move it to the ‘~/odometry/src/gscam/example’ directory. Then open file ‘raspicam.launch’ that we’ve already created and change it, so that it should looks like this:

<launch>
   <arg name="cam_name" value="raspicam"/>
   <env name="GSCAM_CONFIG" value="udpsrc port=9000 ! application/x-rtp, payload=96 ! rtpjitterbuffer ! rtph264depay ! avdec_h264 ! videoconvert" />
   <node pkg="gscam" type="gscam" name="$(arg cam_name)">
     <param name="camera_name" value="$(arg cam_name)" />
     <param name="camera_info_url" value="package://gscam/examples/raspicam.yaml" />
     <remap from="camera/image_raw" to="$(arg cam_name)/image_raw" />
   </node>
 </launch>

After that you have your camera calibrated and can launch gscam by:

$ roslaunch gscam raspicam.launch

Rectifying the image

The raw image from the camera driver is not what is needed for visual processing, but rather an undistorted and (if necessary) debayered image. This is the job of image_proc. For example, if you have topics /raspicam/image_raw and /raspicam/camera_info you would do:

$ ROS_NAMESPACE=raspicam rosrun image_proc image_proc

There will appear a new topic /raspicam/image_rect. It’s exactly what we need.


Getting odometry

$ rosrun viso2_ros mono_odometer image:=/raspicam/image_rect

This will publish /mono_odometer/pose messages and you can echo them:

$ rostopic echo /mono_odometer/pose

Visualizing pose

If you want to visualize that messages that is published into /mono_odometer/pose, then you should install and build another one package:

$ cd ~/odometry/src
$ git clone https://github.com/ros-visualization/rqt_pose_view.git 
$ cd ~/odometry
$ catkin_make

The rqt_pose_view is a very simple plugin just displaying an OpenGL 3D view showing a colored cube. You can drag and drop a geometry_msgs/Pose topic onto it from the “Topic Introspection” or “Publisher” plugins to make it visualize the orientation specified in the message.


#2

Hi Kobylyanskly,

Really nice work and I am excited to try this! I am trying to use your setup but couldn’t launch raspicam launch file properly. Setup on Pi was fine and the video is broadcasting since I am able to stream the video with command $ gst-launch-1.0 -v udpsrc port=9000 caps=‘application/x-rtp, media=(string)video, clock-rate=(int)90000, encoding-name=(string)H264’ ! rtph264depay ! avdec_h264 ! videoconvert ! autovideosink sync=f
The problem arises when I run the raspicam.launch file and it returns the message:

[FATAL] [1515599618.204792312]: GStreamer: cannot link outelement(“rtph264depay0”) -> sink
[FATAL] [1515599618.204858007]: Failed to initialize gscam stream!

Do you have any idea what is wrong? My launch file is exactly the same as your post.

Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Erin


#3

My setup is Ubuntu 14.04, ros indigo, raspberian Jessie with Ros indigo


#4

Update: I found out this works for me:


#5

Also worked for me. I used the system with OpenCV3, ROS Kinetic


#6

What worked for you? Something went wrong with your post?


#7

In the launch file for raspicam.launch, the given enviroment variable for GSCAM_CONFIG didn’t work for me. I had to modify it to this:

<env name="GSCAM_CONFIG" value="udpsrc port=9000 ! application/x-rtp, payload=96 ! rtph264depay ! ffdec_h264 ! ffmpegcolorspace ! avdec_h264 ! videoconvert" />


#8

I met the problem that gscam didn’t stream anything. It’s blocked in the line ’ GstSample* sample = gst_app_sink_pull_sample(GST_APP_SINK(sink_));’ Have you ever meet the problem? I will be really grateful if you have some idea.